Native American and Indigenous Community at LMU
Led by a mission focused on social justice, diversity, equity, inclusion, and anti-racism, LMU is committed to the success of students, staff, and faculty from historically marginalized communities. One step in this mission is to increase access to the resources and programs that our BIPOC community members may connect with the most, in order to enhance their LMU experience.
Here you will find specialized programs, student and employee affinity and networking groups, events, and resources that center the Native American and Indigenous community. Each focused initiative offers a space to build community connections, to advance career and educational opportunities, and to thrive at LMU.
Photo: Robert Dorame, tribal chair of the Gabrielino-Tongva Indians of California, and his niece, poet Megan Dorame, at the LMU osprey nesting pole dedication ceremony, 2019.
As part of Loyola Marymount University's recognition of our history, location, and relationship to the indigenous communities in Los Angeles, we acknowledge the Tongva peoples as the traditional land caretakers of Tovaangar (the Los Angeles basin and southern Channel Islands) and the presence of LMU on this traditional, ancestral, and unceded land. We are grateful to have the opportunity to live, study, create, and be in this place.
The Importance of Land Acknowledgments as Preludes to Transformed Relations
To open Indigenous Heritage Month, Professors Ernesto Colín and Brenda Nicolás write, “We briefly reflect on the importance of land acknowledgements, what they require and implore, and how we might go beyond them. First off, we remember we are guests/visitors on these lands.”Read the full article
LMU's Tongva Memorial
LMU’s Tongva Memorial, established in 2000, is found on the bluff overlooking Playa Vista where Tongva artifacts were discovered during the construction of the Leavey residence halls. The site was rededicated in 2004 after the remains of several hundred Native Americans were found in a burial ground on the Playa Vista property below the bluff. These were reburied in an earthen mound within the Ballona Discovery Park. About 3,000 Tongva archaeological sites exist within what is now Los Angeles and Orange Counties.
November is National American Indian Heritage Month
The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the rich ancestry and traditions of Native Americans. Visit these resources below for more information and programming.
- National Native American Heritage Month
- A Proclamation on National Native American Heritage Month
- National Congress of American Indians
Indigenous Student Union
Indigenous Student Union brings awareness to the social, political and institutional issues that Indigenous people have and continue to face. This organization aims to cultivate a safe space, be an additional source of empowerment and unite the Indigenous students and their accomplices at LMU. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org or follow on Instagram.
- Indigenous Artists Network
- Indigenous Direction
- Intercultural Facilitators Program (IF)
- One Pride
- SFTV Storytellers of Color
- Theater in Color
Programs and Departments
Explore the History of the Ballona Wetlands
Thursday, November 4, 2021
Lisa Fimiani, Center for Urban Resilience (CURes) environmental fellow, will lead these two class tours through Ballona Discovery Park to discover the history of the Ballona Wetlands walking through the Watershed Walk and indigenous peoples exhibits.
- 8:15 a.m. Intro to Env Studies (EVST 1000), taught by Tyler Harlan
- 10:20 a.m. Intro to Env Studies (EVST 1000), taught by Tyler Harlan
Saturday, November 6, 2021
Join us Nov. 6 from 9- 11 a.m. at Ballona Discovery Park! We will provide bagels and schmears, as well a space for the community to discover nature through guided tours, trail education, and the teaching of native plants and species.
- 9-11 a.m. Bagels and Schmears, hosted by Friends of Ballona Wetlands
- 3-4:30 p.m. Neighborhood Tour of the Park, hosted by CURes
Tuesday, November 9 & Tuesday, November 23
Lisa Fimiani joins Neysa Frechette, manager of Scientific Programs for the Friends of Ballona Wetlands, with FBW interns and community volunteers to tend to the Native Gardens in the park. Learn about native plants and how to take care of them, especially in an urban park. Tours of the park are also available for newcomers.
- Nov. 9, 10 a.m.
- Nov. 23, 10 a.m. Ballona Discovery Park - Learn more and register here
News from the Center for Urban Resilience (CURes)
Friends of Ballona Wetlands Founders' Commemorative Bronze Sculpture Installed in Ballona Discovery Park
On October 14, 2021 a small group of family, friends and dignitaries gathered at the entrance of Ballona Discovery Park for the unveiling of a bronze relief sculpture commemorating founders of the non-profit organization, Friends of Ballona Wetlands, responsible for halting development and ultimately saving the Ballona Wetlands from destruction. Read the full article >
Eric Strauss, President's Professor of Biology and executive director of the LMU Center for Urban Resilience, and Lisa Fimiani, program director with CURes and inaugural Dan and Susan Gottlieb Environmental Leaders Fellows, discuss the center's commitment to honoring and preserving the Ballona Wetlands. Read the full article >
On July 16, 2021, a small gathering of representatives from Playa Vista, LMU, and Friends of Ballona Wetlands, joined Robert Dorame, Tribal Chairman and Most Likely Descendant of the Gabrielino Tongva Indians of California, to inaugurate the Tongva Memorial in Ballona Discovery Park. Read the full article >
Who was Rev. Junipero Serra?: Reconciling Past with Present
Thursday, November 4, 2021, 4:30- 6 p.m. PDT
Ahmanson 1000, University Hall
- View post-event article in LMU This Week, "Historian, Panelists Explore Serra’s Complicated Legacy"
Please join us to gain a better understanding of Rev. Junipero Serra and the impact he and the mission system had on indigenous people. The program will include a community conversation that examines the issues and the status of the Serra statue on the LMU campus. A reception will follow.
Keynote Speaker: Robert M. Senkewicz, Emeritis Professor of History at Santa Clara University and coauthor of Junípero Serra: California, Indians, and the Transformation of a Missionary.
Host: Rubén Martinez, Fletcher Jones Chair for Writing and Literature
Than Povi Martinez, LMU class of '24, Woman of the Tewa Pueblo People of San Ildefonso
Carisa Aguilera-Dupnik, LMU class of '22, Community Leader, Indigenous Student Organization
Professor Cecilia Gonzalez-Andrieu, Theological Studies
Fr. Sean Dempsey, S.J., Professor of History
Edgar Perez, member, Gabrielino-Gabrieleño-Tongva Community
- To provide the community with historical information and contemporary context regarding Rev. Junipero Serra.
- To provide an outlet for continuing conversations about the Rev. Serra statue and its status on the LMU campus.
- To share the process and timeline the community has been and will be engaging in regarding the statue.
Featured Artist Talk: Mercedes Dorame
Wed., Dec. 1, 2021, 4-5:30 p.m.
The Hill (Malone 460C)
Artist Reception to Follow
Dunning Courtyard, Burns Fine Arts Center
Tongva artist Mercedes Dorame uses photography and sculptural installations to explore the construction of culture and ceremony as outcomes of the need to tie one's existence to the land. Themes critical to recent Tongva history -- erasure, dispossession, exclusion, and invisibility, countered by struggle, survival, continuity, and resurgence -- run througout Dorame's work and illustrate the importance of art production for Indigenous survivance.
These events are open to LMU community members only.
Download event flyer.
Courses at LMU with Content on Indigenous Peoples
Establishing space within the curriculum for courses that address the experiences of historically marginalized communities is a critical part of Loyola Marymount University’s commitment to social justice, diversity, equity, inclusion, and anti-racism. This list features course offerings that include significant content on Indigenous Peoples. It is followed by short profiles of selected faculty who regularly engage Indigenous issues through their teaching and research.
CLST 1116 Introduction to Chicana/o and Latina/o Studies (Prof. Brenda Nicolás) This course represents both a product of Chicana/o and Latina/o struggle, social movements, and an unrelenting commitment to inspiring and encouraging students to understand the complex world they live in. Accordingly, this course is an introduction to the history, culture, and identity of Chicanas/os and Latinas/os (including Indigenous diasporas from Latin America and Afro-Latinx) living in Los Angeles from the 1900s to early 21st century. The purpose is to familiarize students with the diversity and complexity of the Chicana/o and Latina/o experience and to introduce critical issues central to that experience including settler colonialism, structural racism, patriarchy, immigration and globalization, as well as the creative ways they have responded to social structures. Together, we’ll survey the diverse expressions of Chicana/o and Latina/o identity and the ongoing process of their cultural productions as structured through race and its intersections with (il)legality, gender, sexualities, class and ability. As a result, students will be able to describe the colonial, political, intellectual, and cultural aspects of U.S. democracy by paying special attention to Indigenous, Chicana/o, Latina/o and other communities of color. Moreover, students will be able to evaluate U.S. institutions and ideals within the context of a changing and diverse society.
CLST 2100 Interdisciplinary and Intersectional Methods (Prof. Brenda Nicolás) This course takes an interdisciplinary and intersectional perspective on conducting research with underrepresented communities, including, but not limited to Chicanx/Latinx, Indigenous, Black, Asian American, Queer BIPOC communities, and others. Based on a diverse approach to qualitative research methods, we will learn about conducting oral histories, in-depth interviews, semi-structure interviews, various forms of ethnography (participant observation, autoethnography, transborder or dual-sited), including survey design. We will consider the following questions: What does it mean to work with underrepresented and historically marginalized communities? How do we engage with these communities? What protocols are set, or not, set in place to conduct ethical research?
CLST 3998 Engaging L.A. and Latin America (Prof. Rubén Martinez)
CLST 4410 Critical Indigeneities (Prof. Brenda Nicolás) Indigenous peoples are often thought of as something of the past, rather than people of the present and future. For many tribes and Indigenous migrants from Latin America, their racialization as Latina/o by the U.S. makes them invisible as Indigenous peoples with distinct cultures, language, political, and belief systems than that of Latinx /Chicanx populations. This class will examine the experiences of Indigenous diasporas from the borderlands of Mexico and the US and from Latin America. It will specifically look at the vast experiences of “borderland” tribes, as well as Indigenous migrants from Mexico, Central America and to a lesser extent South American Indigenous diasporas in the United States. Through a critical indigenous studies lens, this course focuses on key themes such as land, settler colonialism, migration, indigeneity, mestizaje and Latinidad, with a historical and contemporary perspective that considers Indigenous peoples as past, present, and emerging. Such considerations allows us to understand how racial logics of Latinidad and Chicanidad, which take on mestizaje definitions, work to erase Indigenous peoples. We will be critically analyzing readings, films, and bringing in community-based guest speakers to better understand how Indigenous peoples continue to refuse and resist settler colonial elimination.
FFYS 1000 L.A., the Border and Beyond (Prof. Rubén Martinez)
ENGL 2208 Introduction to Fiction (Prof. Dermot Ryan) A course designed to develop an appreciation of fiction through critical analysis and creative writing.
ENGL 2297 Histories: Native American to Transcendentalist Literature (Prof. Robin Miskolcze)
ENGL 3346 Children’s Literature (Prof. Aimee Ross-Kilroy) A study of children’s literature and the critical discussions it raises across literary and educational studies, open to Liberal Studies majors who are juniors or seniors.
ENGL 3361, Reading Methods (Prof. Dermot Ryan) A survey of various methods of reading literary texts.
ENGL 3371 American Literature I (Prof. Robin Miskolcze) A survey of American literature from colonial times to 1865.
ENGL 3372 American Literature II (Prof. KJ Peters) A survey of American literature from 1865 to the present.
ENGL 3998 Authors: Louise Erdrich (Prof. Robin Miskolcze)
ENGL 3998 Cultivating a Planetary Perspective (Prof. Paul Harris) This course engages a range of materials from across the disciplines designed to cultivate a planetary perspective, an ecological awareness of the human species’ present situation, as well as its history and prospective futures. Drawing on work from diverse cultural contexts, the course centers on the notion of “cultivating” both as a practice of gardening, cultivating the earth, and a practice of personal development, cultivating one’s mind and spirit to evolve a planetary ethical, ecological perspective. The class will integrate the study of gardens as expressions of philosophies of nature and living, and we will study contemporary artists and landscape designers who create planetary perspectives by integrating cosmology and ecology in their work.
ENGL/JOUR/AFAM 3998 Race & Ethnicity in Journalism (Prof. Julia Lee & Prof. Tara Pixley) The course encourages students to understand media production as an act of social justice that crosses disciplinary boundaries of journalism, creative writing, literary studies, history, and rhetoric. We analyze how American journalism as a professional practice and news media viewership as cultural consumption can function to produce or reiterate ideas about race and ethnicity. Students will learn the role journalism has played in both perpetuating and challenging racist ideologies alongside contemporary issues of race and representation in newsrooms.
Topics covered in the class include: the trajectories of independent newspapers geared towards Black, Chicana/o, Asian, Indigenous, and other ethnic communities in the U.S.; how ideologies of race flow through and from health reporting, audio storytelling, and visual journalism, among other formats of news media; the role of news media in civil rights and racial justice movements; and efforts to confront racism in the American newsroom from the 1990s to 2021.
JOUR 4404 Nature Writing (Prof. Evelyn McDonnell) Students will study the history of nonfiction writing about nature and explore the current state of environmental journalism. They will experience, observe, reflect on, and write about nature.
ENGL/JOUR 5501 Telling L.A.’s Story (Prof. Rubén Martinez) This is an advanced essay workshop examining the artistry of journalism as it relates to Los Angeles. We will explore LA writing by reading the most compelling practitioners and incorporating, when applicable, their craft and style techniques to our own writing, as we engage in the tradition of the public intellectual.
ENGL 5553 American Realism and Naturalism (Prof. Robin Miskolcze) The study of such representative American fiction writers, including Indigenous authors Zitkala-and Sarah Winnemucca.
HIST 1301 America and the Atlantic World, 1450-1850 (Prof. Kevin McDonald) The trans-Atlantic world of Europe, Africa, and the Americas as a single unit of study in the wake of the voyages of Columbus, including the North American colonies and early United States, the slave trade and plantation complex, the Columbian exchange, revolutions, and abolition.
Hist 1400 United States and the World This course serves as an introductory survey of United States history from the nineteenth century to the present. It focuses on the experiences of groups and individuals and their relationships to the broader structures of United States society by examining changes to American society over time, exploring their causes, and analyzing their consequences within a transnational context.
Hist 1700 Early Latin America (Prof. Margarita Ochoa) History of the Americas, from the pre-Colombian era and European arrival through Spanish and Portuguese rule and Independence. Topics include: Aztec and Inka empires, Indigenous versions of conquest, race relations, women and gender, Trans-Atlantic slave trade, African diaspora, Asian trade, silver mining, Catholic Church, missions, Indigenous communities and uprisings, and Independence.
Hist 1750 Modern Latin America (Prof. Margarita Ochoa) History of the Americas, from Independence to the present. Topics include: Independence, slavery and abolition, nation-building, US-Latin American relations, liberalism and modernization, neoliberalism and free trade, Indigenous communities, race relations, women and gender, Cold War, state tyranny and civil wars, the pink tide, and displacement/migration of populations.
Hist 2300 Race in Colonial America (Prof. Cara Anzilotti) A social and cultural history of North America from the pre-Columbian period to the American Revolution with a focus on the roots of American race relations. The course will address the impact of competing cultures as they developed and collided during 200 years of conflict.
Hist 2410 Race and Ethnicity in America This course surveys the history of race and ethnicity in the lands that became the United States from the fifteenth century to the present, focusing on three, overlapping themes: (1) the efforts by European nations and the United States to colonize the lands of North America, in part through the subjugation of particular groups such as American Indians, African Americans, and immigrants from Europe, Asia, and Latin America; (2) the ways that these groups have negotiated such oppression and claimed places within U.S. culture and society; and (3) the intersection of race and ethnicity with other categories of difference, such as gender, class, religion, and sexuality.
HIST 2450: Seminar, Indigenous Histories (Prof. Nicolas Rosenthal) This course introduces students to the study of history, including historical method, the writing of history, and historical interpretation, with a focus on the field of Indigenous History. For thousands of years, Indigenous peoples have maintained traditions and practices of historical interpretation. European and Americans began interpreting the history of Indigenous peoples during the colonization of North American, incorporating Indigenous peoples into broader historical narratives that served colonial purposes. By the late twentieth century, new trends in historical scholarship focused attention on Indigenous perspectives and the field has continued to expand and shift directions, often in response to broader social forces and the advocacy of Indigenous scholars and activists. This course will study this “history of Indigenous History,” then students will prepare a research proposal and annotated bibliography for a major research paper in Indigenous History.
Hist 3702 Women, Gender, and Sexuality in Colonial Latin America (Prof. Margarita Ochoa) A historical exploration of the place of women and men within the social systems of pre-Columbian, early, and modern Latin America. The course explores the gendered dimensions of the economy, politics, and culture in indigenous, Spanish, and contemporary societies.
Hist 3708 Race in Colonial Latin America (Prof. Margarita Ochoa) This course examines the complicated history of race in Latin America, including how Latin Americans used race to organize society and how this social construct shaped the experiences of men and women of different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Topics include: race mixture, racial classification, and cultural hybridity; slavery and emancipation; immigration; nationalism and citizenship; and the intersections of race, gender, and class.
HIST 4411: History of the North American West (Prof. Nicolas Rosenthal) This course surveys the history of the North American West, focusing on the 19th and 20th centuries. Throughout the semester we will discuss several overlapping themes: 1) the drive by the United States government and its citizens to conquer the lands of North America; 2) the struggles by the Indigenous peoples of the North American West to control and adapt to the changes brought by newcomers; 3) the subsequent migration of peoples to the West from all over the world; 4) the transformation of the region’s society, culture, politics, economy, and environment; 5) and the shifting relationships between the American West, the United States, and the world.
HIST 4412: History of California (Prof. Nicolas Rosenthal) This course surveys the history of California from the sixteenth century to the end of the twentieth century. It highlights migration and immigration; the transformation of the state’s economy; how race, class, and gender mitigate historical experiences; California’s unique culture and the perception of that culture; and the shifting relationships between California, the American West, the United States, and the world. Particular attention is paid to the experiences of Indigenous peoples in the history of the state, through Spanish, Mexican, and American colonization.
HIST 5400: Seminar, Indigenous Peoples and American History (Prof. Nicolas Rosenthal) This course introduces students to current scholarship in the history of the Indigenous Peoples of North America. While framed by the conditions of European and American settler colonialism, it focuses on Indigenous agency in negotiating these forces to survive and adapt to become active participants in shaping modern American culture and society. Based on historiographical and secondary readings, weekly discussions cover topics such as settler colonialism as a theoretical foundation, the contested North American West, California’s foundations, Indigenous Nation histories, reservation struggles, American Indian activism, Native peoples and modern society, and how to write Indigenous Peoples into North American history. A parallel component of the course discusses research methods, to guide students through the processes of choosing a topic and writing a research paper based on a combination of primary and secondary sources. By the latter weeks of the course these research papers are the course focus and include individual feedback and consultation, peer review, and class presentations.
Hist 5700 Seminar, Social Justice in Latin America (Prof. Margarita Ochoa) Advanced history seminar that examines contemporary Latin American problems and identifies and debates just solutions to those problems.
THST 3780 World Religions and Ecology (Prof. Christopher Chapple) This interdisciplinary service learning course explores how religious ideas and practices are responding to the contemporary environmental crisis. It includes outdoor instruction at the Tongva Memorial and Ballona Discovery Park, highlighting stories of the First Peoples of the Los Angeles basin. Students gain knowledge about local geography (mountains, rivers, beaches) as well as flora and fauna.
Christopher Key Chapple is Doshi Professor of Indic and Comparative Theology and founding director of the Master of Arts in Yoga Studies. He has published more than twenty books including Karma and Creativity (1986), Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions (1993), Reconciling Yogas (2003), Yoga and the Luminous (2008), Living Landscapes: Meditations on the Elements in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain Yogas (2020), and several edited volumes on religion and ecology. He has received numerous grants for his research, including from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Fulbright Nehru Fellowship program. He serves on the advisory boards for the Forum on Religion and Ecology (Yale), the Ahimsa Center (Pomona), the Jaina Studies Centre (London), the Dharma Academy of North America (Berkeley), the Uberoi Foundation (Denver), the South Asia Studies Association (Los Angeles), the Center for Religions and Spirituality (LMU), and the International School for Jain Studies (Delhi).
Ernesto Colín, Associate Professoer in the Specialized Program in Urban Education, is a visual artist, Aztec dancer, indigenous school board member, and a cultural anthropologist whose research interests include indigenous education and lifeways. He is the author of Indigenous Education Through Dance and Ceremony which is a long term ethnography of the dynamics of ceremony and community-based learning in an Aztec dance group. Some of his current projects look at the successful integration of indigenous language and culture into the formal curriculum of schools in Guatemala, Mexico, and across the United States, the development of indigenous self-identity, and art-based curriculum transformation in schools in Native American communities. He has collaborated with several student researchers doing work on projects with indigenous communities and topics.
Brenda Nicolás, Assistant Professor of Chicana/o and Latina/o Studies, is Zapoteca from San Jerónimo Zoochina and Yatzachi el Alto in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca. Dr. Nicolás received her PhD from the Department of Chicana/o and Central American Studies at UCLA. Dr. Nicolas has an M.A. in Chicana/o Studies (UCLA) and an M.A. in Latin American Studies with a sociology emphasis from UC San Diego. She received her B.A. in Sociology and Latin American Studies from UC Riverside. She is currently working on a monograph titled, Zapotec Generations in Trans-Comunalidad Routes: From Political, Cultural, to Social Indigenous Practices of Being, which looks at the transborder and translocal communal experiences of Zapotec diasporas in Los Angeles. Specifically, her work is a multigenerational project that analyzes the Indigenous practice and ideology of comunalidad in Oaxacan brass bands, traditional dances, and hometown associations (HTAs) by Zapotecs from the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca and how these practices contest US racial logics of Latinidad.
Brenda Nicolás es zapoteca de San Jerónimo Zoochina y Yatzachi el Alto en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca. La doctora Nicolás recibió su doctorado en la facultad de Estudios Chicana/os y Centroamericanos de UCLA. La Dr. Nicolas tiene una maestría en Estudios Chicanos (UCLA) y una maestría en Estudios Latinoamericanos con énfasis en sociología de UC San Diego. Recibió su B.A. (licenciatura) en Sociología y Estudios Latinoamericanos de UC Riverside. Actualmente está trabajando en una monografía titulada Generaciones zapotecas en rutas de transcomunalidad: desde prácticas políticas, culturales y sociales indígenas del ser, que analiza las experiencias comunales transfronterizas y translocales de las diásporas zapotecas en Los Ángeles. Específicamente, su trabajo es un proyecto multigeneracional que analiza la práctica indígena y la ideología de la comunalidad en las bandas de música, bailes tradicionales y asociaciones locales (HTA) de Oaxaca por parte de zapotecas de la Sierra Norte y cómo estas prácticas cuestionan las lógicas raciales estadounidenses de latinidad.
Margarita R. Ochoa, Associate Professor of History, is a specialist in Latin American history and society. Her research examines questions of identity (gender, race, and Indigeneity), structures of power, and law and legal culture in colonial and early-national Mexico. She is co-editor of Cacicas: The Female Indigenous Leaders of Spanish America, 1492-1825 (Univ of Oklahoma press, 2021) and City Indians in Spain's American Empire (Sussex, 2012). She has also published several articles and is completing a book manuscript on Indigenous families and society in 18th-19th centuries Mexico City. At LMU, Dr. Ochoa teaches courses in colonial and modern Latin American topics.
Nicolas Rosenthal, Professor of History, specializes in modern American Indian history. His first book, Reimagining Indian Country: Native American Migration and Identity in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (The University of North Carolina Press, 2012), follows the migration of American Indians to cities, the development of urban American Indian life, and the relationships between cities and American Indian reservations, with a focus on the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area. Professor Rosenthal’s current project, “Painting Native America: Indigenous Artists in the Twentieth Century,” tracks three generations of American Indian artists who sought to make a place for American Indian art in both US culture and society and the broader art world. He teaches courses on Indigenous history, environmental history, Los Angeles history, California history, the history of the North American West, and 20th Century United States history.
Professor Ernesto Colín interviews elder and musician Javier Quijas Yxayotl as part of a research project with the Smithsonian.
Students of Anahuacalmecac International University Preparatory School in Los Angeles demonstrate for indigenous representation and resources in LAUSD schools.
Dancer in full regalia at a Summer Solstice Aztec Dance ceremony.
LMU Executive MBA students participate in a meditative session in altar building during a cultural immersion workshop.
A gift bundle containing an eagle feather, jade, chachayote seed, cloth, corn, chocolate, copal incense, and a quitapenas doll from Guatemala.